Kibera level 3 hospital

Water desalination plant installed in Kibera level 3 hospital.

Kibera level 3 hospital has received a complete and running water desalination plant to provide the facility clean drinkable water for use. The plant was commissioned by Water CAS Andrew Tuimur and Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman on October 14, 2022.

This water desalination plant is among 28 other plants installed in other health facilities across the country. The plant is solar powered to keep cost of operation low.

Water CAS Andrew Tuimur, WaterKiosk Managing Director Samuel Kinyanjui, Boreal Light CEO Dr Mahed Beheshti explains and Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman during the commissioning of the water desalination plant installed at the Kibera Level 3 hospital, on October 14, 2022

The project is expected to benefit six million people annually and create at least 52 direct jobs and 130 indirect jobs.

The project was initiated in 2020 at the height of the Covid-19 pandemic to support hospitals with clean drinking water after it was realised that potable water was a problem. The plant was installed at the facility by WaterKiosk, a new Nairobi-based company in partnership with DEG (a German company), Boreal Light and the German government.

“Apart from the health facilities facing a challenge accessing clean water for their renal unit, patients had challenges too,” WaterKiosk managing director Samuel Kinyanjui said.

“We have looked at all the gaps we have to fill to improve our health systems. a project like this contributes to that effort because we can provide clean water,” Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman said.

“We have looked at all the gaps we have to fill to improve our health systems. a project like this contributes to that effort because we can provide clean water,”

“The facility has a borehole that produces saline water containing chemicals. Kenyan water tends to be saline.

Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman

The solar desalinisation unit cleans it up to a high degree so water can be used in equipment for renal dialysis,” Aman said.

Nairobi has a water shortage and many estates have borehole water that also comes with high levels of fluoride

The water desalination system is a reverse osmosis filtration system similar to other systems that CESP Africa has installed. The plant operates by removing all dissolved and suspended elements and compounds from the water. The final product of the water desalination process is clean water without any impurities from bacteria, viruses and dissolved salts.

Commercial water treatment system
Water desalination /treatment plant installed in 2 rivers mall by CESP Africa.
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Our water filtration system vs refillable water bottles.

Water dispensers are a silent but integral part of any home or office. Not glamorous by any stretch but when you’re feeling thirsty, it’s just what you need.

Our water dispensers are slightly different because they connect directly to your water system, filter your council or borehole water to give you clean drinking water.

For those seeking a slightly more inconspicuous solution, we have an under-sink system. Same connection to your water system but the system fits right under your sink, with a tap to get your clean filtered water.


Both our under-sink and stand-alone dispensers use the same technology to treat your water. They use reverse osmosis as well as other filters to clean the water. To read more about how exactly the system works, read here.

Under-sink / Stand-alone dispenser.

  • Our systems use reverse osmosis, as well as other filters to remove any bacteria, viruses, dissolved salts, suspended solids and any other impurities from your tap water. To find out more about how reverse osmosis works read here.
  • Drinking water is always available provided there is electricity and council/borehole water. The system is self-regulating, meaning you set it and leave it and it will purify water to keep its tank full.
  • Our water filtration system comes with an initial purchase cost and cost of filters, but in the long run is very economical.
  • The systems are easy to maintain, requiring very little maintenance and replacing filters every 6-8 months.
  • The under-sink system is also very discrete, with only a tap to dispense your drinking water visible.

Water bottle dispensers.

  • Majority of drinking water providers also use reverse osmosis to remove impurities from their water.
  • The water bottles require constant refilling.
  • There is the initial purchase cost of the dispenser as well as the cost of constantly refilling, which can accumulate quickly to be expensive.
  • The dispensers require the water bottles to be constantly monitored and replaced.
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Domestic borehole water filtration system case study.

We supplied an 800 GPD (3,600LPD) reverse osmosis filtration system to a home in Nairobi county. The client was struggling with borehole water that discolored and had a large amount of suspended solids.

The control panel and a view of the overall system.

The client took a water sample thereafter had it analyzed and got the following results.

Borehole water analysis

PARAMETERValuesKS EAS 12:2018*WHO standardsRemarks
Colour (Pt. Co. APHA Colour)5615015Fail
Turbidity (NTU TUB)83.1255.0Fail
Total Suspended Solids (mg/L TSS)52NDNILFail
Iron (mg/L Fe)6.450.30.3Fail
Manganese (mg/L Mn)0.3170.1Fail
Ammonia (mg/L NH3)
Total Coliforms (cfu/100 ml TC)37NDNDFail
Results from the water analysis

*The KS EAS 13:2018 specifies requirements for packaged mineral water for human consumption. This standard applies to natural mineral water, mineral water, natural spring water, spring water and carbonated mineral water.

The analysis confirmed our suspicions on what might be the main issues with the water. The dissolved iron and manganese were responsible for the colour of the water. 

The findings led the design team to chose a reverse osmosis system, as it would remove all dissolved salts as well as any bacteria present in the water. A plant of 800GPD was chosen to match the needs of the household.

The plant also includes :

  1. Multi-grade sand filter,
  2. Greensand and DMI65
  3. Activated carbon filters.
The three vessels in the system.

How the plant works.

Water from the borehole is pumped into a 5,000-liter raw water tank. A pump directs the water through the first vessel with a multi-grade sand filter to remove any suspended solids. The second vessel contains Greensand and DMI65 which remove iron and manganese in the water. The third vessel contains activated carbon to remove chlorine* in the water.

*The chlorine kills any bacteria and viruses present in the water.

The water is then passed through a PP, Granular activated carbon and CTO filter to further filter out any suspended solids, colour, odors and bad taste from the water.

Another pump then passes the water through the reverse osmosis (R.O) filter to remove any dissolved salts from the water. Finally, tan ultraviolet filter kills any remaining pathogens in the water.

A 5,000 liter tank stores the now filtered water, ready for use.

Raw borehole water and clean water after filtration.


The system is set to periodically backwash the 3 larger vessels, this prevents the filters from getting clogged with suspended solids and other contaminants in the water.

The R.O. filter is periodically backwashed to prevent it from clogging. The system is also set to automatically dose anti-scallant to prevent any buildup on the R.O. membrane.

The PP, Granular activated carbon and CTO filters are replaced as needed.

Spent filters being replaced.
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The water dispenser to get reverse osmosis in your household.

If you’ve ever had bottled water and read the label, you’re sure to have come across the phrase reverse osmosis. Many of us only know that it means the water is clean. What we want to know is. What is reverse osmosis? How does it ensure our water is fit to drink? How our water dispenser can easily get purified water in our homes?

Good old osmosis

To better understand reverse osmosis let’s begin with regular osmosis. Osmosis refers to the movement of solutes, in our case water, across a membrane in response to a difference in concentration across the two sides of the membranes. In the past fruit and meat were preserved thanks to osmosis. Fruit preservation uses osmosis to draw out water to dehydrate it. Meat, on the other hand, draws salt in. As a result, it stops any bacterial growth hence preserving the meat from going bad.

Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis still makes use of the membrane but unlike regular osmosis ,the solvent moves from high solute concentration to a low solute concentration. A pressure applied on the side of the membrane with a higher solute (unpurified water) concentration forces the solvent to move through the membrane to where it is less concentrated (purified water). The solvent being water and the solutes dissolved minerals, pathogens, suspended material etc.

By that definition you can see how reverse osmosis can be a great tool to get clean drinkable water. Most interaction with water purified to this standard is mostly with bottled water. That doesn’t have to be the case.

The water dispenser to get you clean drinking water.

Top mounted water dispensers are the most common. The ones with a huge bottle of water on top that you have to get refilled at a shop. The CESP Africa bottle less water dispenser brings the same standard of clean water to the home.

CESP Africa offers home and office-based solutions with integrated reverse osmosis solutions that connects to your existing water system and filters your tap water to give you clean drinkable water. These home and office solutions are;

  • A standalone water dispenser system.
CESP Africa bottle less water dispenser.

A familiar form factor, similar to a regular dispenser without the large bottle of water on top. The dispenser has a couple of features; Firstly, a LED display denoting the temperature of the hot and cold water for you to get the exact temperature of water you want. Secondly, to protect any children, the dispenser has a safety knob on the hot water tap. Thirdly an energy saving settings to help conserve energy and save on your power bill when not in use.

  • A table top filtration and water dispenser system.
Portable tabletop filtration and water dispenser system.

A compact and portable filtration system to get you clean drinking water.

  • An under-sink water purifier system.
Under sink water filtration system

A more discrete solution. The under-sink system attaches easily below your sink to give a dedicated faucet for purified drinking water.

To sum it all up

All three filtration systems use reverse osmosis to purify the water. Water is passes through a 0.0001 micron membrane. All of this to completely remove water contaminants such as heavy metals, excess salt, bacteria and viruses.

Other filtration systems commonly used are nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration. As well as reverse osmosis these other filtration methods can be used to provide the purest drinking water . These dispensers ensure water safety in your home or office without the hustle of replacing large cumbersome water bottles.

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