The Implications of Changing Precipitation Patterns on Water Resource Management in Africa

Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on precipitation patterns in Africa, and the effect on water resource management in the region is of great concern. The continent is already facing water scarcity, and the changes in precipitation patterns will only exacerbate the problem. It is essential that Africa understands and prepares for these changes to ensure a sustainable future for its water resources.

Water availability

One of the most significant impacts of changing precipitation patterns in Africa is on water availability. The region is expected to experience more frequent and severe droughts due to decreased rainfall, which will lead to water scarcity and increased competition for limited water resources. This is particularly concerning for rural communities and smallholder farmers who rely heavily on rainfall for their livelihoods.

UN drought appeal 2023
A man gives water to a thirsty donkey in drought-stricken Kenya.

Another impact of changing precipitation patterns is on water quality. Increased rainfall can cause erosion and sedimentation, leading to the degradation of water quality. Additionally, heavy rainfall can wash pollutants into waterways, resulting in contamination of drinking water sources. This is a major concern for many African communities that already lack access to clean water.

How can we adapt?

Adaptation strategies that can help African communities and industries to cope with changing precipitation patterns include:
Investing in water storage infrastructure to capture and store water during periods of high rainfall for use during dry periods.
Implementing water-saving measures, such as using drought-tolerant crops or implementing water-efficient irrigation systems.
Developing early warning systems for floods and droughts to help communities prepare and respond quickly.
Creating green infrastructure to manage storm water and reduce the risk of flooding.
Building sea walls and other coastal protection measures to protect against sea level rise.
It’s important to note that changing precipitation patterns will have different impacts in different regions of Africa and on different sectors, so it’s crucial that water resource management strategies are tailored to the specific needs and circumstances of each community.


In conclusion, changing precipitation patterns as a result of climate change will have a significant impact on water resource management in Africa. The continent is already facing water scarcity, and the changes in precipitation patterns will only exacerbate the problem. It is essential that Africa understands and prepares for these changes to ensure a sustainable future for its water resources.

Read More

What you can expect in climate change in Kenya in 2023

United Nations and partners call for $472.6 million to respond in 2023 as the drought in Kenya deepens

The United Nations and partners are calling for $472.6 million in aid to help 4.3 million drought-affected people in Kenya in 2023, as the crisis is expected to worsen. The drought in Kenya is the longest and most severe in recent history, and the needs of those in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) region continue to rise. It is estimated that 6.4 million people in ASALs will need humanitarian assistance in 2023.

At least 4.35 million people are going hungry and about 5 million do not have access to clean water. There have also been reports of children dropping out of school and increases in child marriage cases. Despite being an underfunded crisis, 89 humanitarian partners reached nearly 1 million people with aid between January and September 2022. However, the exceptional duration and severity of the drought has led to projections of a possible sixth consecutive poor rainy season from March to May 2023.

UN drought appeal 2023
A man gives water to a thirsty donkey in drought-stricken Kenya.

Below-average short rains ameliorate rangeland resources, but conditions remain poor.

The historic drought in Kenya is continuing, with the October to December 2022 short rains being the fifth consecutive below-average season. Rainfall at the end of November was less than 70% of the 30-year average across most of the country, with large areas in the northwest, north, and east recording less than 55% of the average. The short rains have provided some stabilization in water and pasture conditions in northern Kenya’s pastoral areas, but vegetation greenness is still less than 60% of the 10-year average.

In western Kenya, rainfall is average to above average, supporting agricultural production. Across pastoral areas, rangeland resources are still well below normal, and poor vegetation and long trekking distances for water are maintaining poor livestock conditions and low milk production. In the marginal agricultural areas, the area planted with staple food is below average due to the late onset and below-average rainfall, as well as constrained access to income for seeds and inputs. Staple food prices remain high across the country due to successive below-average production seasons, high demand, high marketing costs, and reduced cross-border imports. This is limiting household purchasing power, particularly for poor market-dependent households.

Kenya forecast for 2023
Map of Kenya showing expected food insecurity conditions in 2023.

Tree Planting Initiative to Benefit Local Community in 2023

On November 9th, 2022, Laikipia Air Base (LAB) in Nanyuki, Kenya, partnered with Kenya Water Towers to launch a tree planting initiative with the goal of planting over 30,000 trees within the region. This initiative is not only part of the Kenya Defence Forces’ environmental soldier program, but it is also expected to benefit the local community in 2023 by improving air quality and providing a source of shade and possibly even fruit.

The tree planting is also in support of the country’s plan to plant 5 billion new trees as part of its climate change mitigation efforts. The Base Commander, Brigadier Mohamud Farah, thanked Kenya Water Towers for their donation of 15,230 tree seedlings and participation in the program. The event was attended by LAB Commanding Officers, officers, base sergeant major, service members, and representatives from Kenya Water Towers.

Kdf tree planting Laikipia
Soldiers planting trees at Laikipia Air Base in Nanyuki, Kenya.

Understanding the Effects of the Drought in Kenya on the Economy and Financial Situation in 2023

In 2021, Kenya’s economy grew by 6.7% after a contraction of 0.3% in 2020. Growth was driven by the service industry and private consumption, which both benefited from supportive policies and eased COVID-19 restrictions. Inflation increased to 6.1% in 2021 from 5.3% in 2020 due to higher input costs. The fiscal deficit decreased to 7.9% of GDP in 2021 from 8% in 2020 due to improved revenue, reversed tax cuts, and reduced spending. Public debt rose to 68% of GDP at the end of June 2021 from 63% in 2020 due to the primary deficit. Kenya is at high risk of debt distress.

The current account deficit increased to 5.2% of GDP in 2021 because of a larger trade deficit. International reserves reached $8.8 billion at the end of November 2021 compared to $8.1 billion in 2020 (5.4 months of import coverage), due in part to a $737.6 million allocation from the Special Drawing Rights. The exchange rate depreciated by 3.7% year-on-year in 2021. The banking sector is profitable, liquid, and well-capitalized. Yields on government securities and the NSE-20 index, as well as market capitalization, have increased. The number of people living in extreme poverty decreased to 16% in 2021 from 17% in 2020, and unemployment fell to 12.3% from 14.3% over the same period. This can be attributed to growth in per capita income, social safety net programs, and economic recovery.

Growth is expected to slow to 5.9% in 2022 and 5.7% in 2023 due to reduced domestic and external demand caused by lower income and higher costs for food and fuel imports, as well as weak economic activity across sectors due to cost-push factors. Inflation is expected to reach 7%, close to the upper end of the target range (7.5%), because of higher energy and food inflation. The fiscal deficit is expected to narrow to 6.5% of GDP in 2022 and 5.5% in 2023 with the resumption of an International Monetary Fund-supported fiscal consolidation and debt management program. The current account deficit is expected to widen further to 6.1% and 5.2% of GDP over the next two years due to higher bills for fuel and food imports. Risks to this outlook.

Climate Change: A Threat to Kenya’s Prosperity in 2023

In conclusion, climate change is expected to have a negative impact on Kenya’s economy in 2023. Growth is predicted to slow and inflation is expected to increase, while the fiscal and current account deficits are expected to worsen. These economic challenges will likely affect the livelihoods and well-being of the people of Kenya. It is important for the country to continue implementing policies and measures to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change in order to protect its citizens and economy.

Read More
Kibera level 3 hospital

Water desalination plant installed in Kibera level 3 hospital.

Kibera level 3 hospital has received a complete and running water desalination plant to provide the facility clean drinkable water for use. The plant was commissioned by Water CAS Andrew Tuimur and Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman on October 14, 2022.

This water desalination plant is among 28 other plants installed in other health facilities across the country. The plant is solar powered to keep cost of operation low.

Water CAS Andrew Tuimur, WaterKiosk Managing Director Samuel Kinyanjui, Boreal Light CEO Dr Mahed Beheshti explains and Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman during the commissioning of the water desalination plant installed at the Kibera Level 3 hospital, on October 14, 2022

The project is expected to benefit six million people annually and create at least 52 direct jobs and 130 indirect jobs.

The project was initiated in 2020 at the height of the Covid-19 pandemic to support hospitals with clean drinking water after it was realised that potable water was a problem. The plant was installed at the facility by WaterKiosk, a new Nairobi-based company in partnership with DEG (a German company), Boreal Light and the German government.

“Apart from the health facilities facing a challenge accessing clean water for their renal unit, patients had challenges too,” WaterKiosk managing director Samuel Kinyanjui said.

“We have looked at all the gaps we have to fill to improve our health systems. a project like this contributes to that effort because we can provide clean water,” Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman said.

“We have looked at all the gaps we have to fill to improve our health systems. a project like this contributes to that effort because we can provide clean water,”

“The facility has a borehole that produces saline water containing chemicals. Kenyan water tends to be saline.

Health CAS Dr Rashid Aman

The solar desalinisation unit cleans it up to a high degree so water can be used in equipment for renal dialysis,” Aman said.

Nairobi has a water shortage and many estates have borehole water that also comes with high levels of fluoride

The water desalination system is a reverse osmosis filtration system similar to other systems that CESP Africa has installed. The plant operates by removing all dissolved and suspended elements and compounds from the water. The final product of the water desalination process is clean water without any impurities from bacteria, viruses and dissolved salts.

Commercial water treatment system
Water desalination /treatment plant installed in 2 rivers mall by CESP Africa.
Read More

Our water filtration system vs refillable water bottles.

Water dispensers are a silent but integral part of any home or office. Not glamorous by any stretch but when you’re feeling thirsty, it’s just what you need.

Our water dispensers are slightly different because they connect directly to your water system, filter your council or borehole water to give you clean drinking water.

For those seeking a slightly more inconspicuous solution, we have an under-sink system. Same connection to your water system but the system fits right under your sink, with a tap to get your clean filtered water.


Both our under-sink and stand-alone dispensers use the same technology to treat your water. They use reverse osmosis as well as other filters to clean the water. To read more about how exactly the system works, read here.

Under-sink / Stand-alone dispenser.

  • Our systems use reverse osmosis, as well as other filters to remove any bacteria, viruses, dissolved salts, suspended solids and any other impurities from your tap water. To find out more about how reverse osmosis works read here.
  • Drinking water is always available provided there is electricity and council/borehole water. The system is self-regulating, meaning you set it and leave it and it will purify water to keep its tank full.
  • Our water filtration system comes with an initial purchase cost and cost of filters, but in the long run is very economical.
  • The systems are easy to maintain, requiring very little maintenance and replacing filters every 6-8 months.
  • The under-sink system is also very discrete, with only a tap to dispense your drinking water visible.

Water bottle dispensers.

  • Majority of drinking water providers also use reverse osmosis to remove impurities from their water.
  • The water bottles require constant refilling.
  • There is the initial purchase cost of the dispenser as well as the cost of constantly refilling, which can accumulate quickly to be expensive.
  • The dispensers require the water bottles to be constantly monitored and replaced.
Read More

Domestic borehole water filtration system case study.

We supplied an 800 GPD (3,600LPD) reverse osmosis filtration system to a home in Nairobi county. The client was struggling with borehole water that discolored and had a large amount of suspended solids.

The control panel and a view of the overall system.

The client took a water sample thereafter had it analyzed and got the following results.

Borehole water analysis

PARAMETERValuesKS EAS 12:2018*WHO standardsRemarks
Colour (Pt. Co. APHA Colour)5615015Fail
Turbidity (NTU TUB)83.1255.0Fail
Total Suspended Solids (mg/L TSS)52NDNILFail
Iron (mg/L Fe)6.450.30.3Fail
Manganese (mg/L Mn)0.3170.1Fail
Ammonia (mg/L NH3)
Total Coliforms (cfu/100 ml TC)37NDNDFail
Results from the water analysis

*The KS EAS 13:2018 specifies requirements for packaged mineral water for human consumption. This standard applies to natural mineral water, mineral water, natural spring water, spring water and carbonated mineral water.

The analysis confirmed our suspicions on what might be the main issues with the water. The dissolved iron and manganese were responsible for the colour of the water. 

The findings led the design team to chose a reverse osmosis system, as it would remove all dissolved salts as well as any bacteria present in the water. A plant of 800GPD was chosen to match the needs of the household.

The plant also includes :

  1. Multi-grade sand filter,
  2. Greensand and DMI65
  3. Activated carbon filters.
The three vessels in the system.

How the plant works.

Water from the borehole is pumped into a 5,000-liter raw water tank. A pump directs the water through the first vessel with a multi-grade sand filter to remove any suspended solids. The second vessel contains Greensand and DMI65 which remove iron and manganese in the water. The third vessel contains activated carbon to remove chlorine* in the water.

*The chlorine kills any bacteria and viruses present in the water.

The water is then passed through a PP, Granular activated carbon and CTO filter to further filter out any suspended solids, colour, odors and bad taste from the water.

Another pump then passes the water through the reverse osmosis (R.O) filter to remove any dissolved salts from the water. Finally, tan ultraviolet filter kills any remaining pathogens in the water.

A 5,000 liter tank stores the now filtered water, ready for use.

Raw borehole water and clean water after filtration.


The system is set to periodically backwash the 3 larger vessels, this prevents the filters from getting clogged with suspended solids and other contaminants in the water.

The R.O. filter is periodically backwashed to prevent it from clogging. The system is also set to automatically dose anti-scallant to prevent any buildup on the R.O. membrane.

The PP, Granular activated carbon and CTO filters are replaced as needed.

Spent filters being replaced.
Read More

The water dispenser to get reverse osmosis in your household.

If you’ve ever had bottled water and read the label, you’re sure to have come across the phrase reverse osmosis. Many of us only know that it means the water is clean. What we want to know is. What is reverse osmosis? How does it ensure our water is fit to drink? How our water dispenser can easily get purified water in our homes?

Good old osmosis

To better understand reverse osmosis let’s begin with regular osmosis. Osmosis refers to the movement of solutes, in our case water, across a membrane in response to a difference in concentration across the two sides of the membranes. In the past fruit and meat were preserved thanks to osmosis. Fruit preservation uses osmosis to draw out water to dehydrate it. Meat, on the other hand, draws salt in. As a result, it stops any bacterial growth hence preserving the meat from going bad.

Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis still makes use of the membrane but unlike regular osmosis ,the solvent moves from high solute concentration to a low solute concentration. A pressure applied on the side of the membrane with a higher solute (unpurified water) concentration forces the solvent to move through the membrane to where it is less concentrated (purified water). The solvent being water and the solutes dissolved minerals, pathogens, suspended material etc.

By that definition you can see how reverse osmosis can be a great tool to get clean drinkable water. Most interaction with water purified to this standard is mostly with bottled water. That doesn’t have to be the case.

The water dispenser to get you clean drinking water.

Top mounted water dispensers are the most common. The ones with a huge bottle of water on top that you have to get refilled at a shop. The CESP Africa bottle less water dispenser brings the same standard of clean water to the home.

CESP Africa offers home and office-based solutions with integrated reverse osmosis solutions that connects to your existing water system and filters your tap water to give you clean drinkable water. These home and office solutions are;

  • A standalone water dispenser system.
CESP Africa bottle less water dispenser.

A familiar form factor, similar to a regular dispenser without the large bottle of water on top. The dispenser has a couple of features; Firstly, a LED display denoting the temperature of the hot and cold water for you to get the exact temperature of water you want. Secondly, to protect any children, the dispenser has a safety knob on the hot water tap. Thirdly an energy saving settings to help conserve energy and save on your power bill when not in use.

  • A table top filtration and water dispenser system.
Portable tabletop filtration and water dispenser system.

A compact and portable filtration system to get you clean drinking water.

  • An under-sink water purifier system.
Under sink water filtration system

A more discrete solution. The under-sink system attaches easily below your sink to give a dedicated faucet for purified drinking water.

To sum it all up

All three filtration systems use reverse osmosis to purify the water. Water is passes through a 0.0001 micron membrane. All of this to completely remove water contaminants such as heavy metals, excess salt, bacteria and viruses.

Other filtration systems commonly used are nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration. As well as reverse osmosis these other filtration methods can be used to provide the purest drinking water . These dispensers ensure water safety in your home or office without the hustle of replacing large cumbersome water bottles.

Read More

Two Rivers Mall

Two Rivers Mall, the largest shopping mall in east and central Africa. Located between the Northern Bypass and Limuru Road and sits on a whopping 1.7 million square feet/39 acres, thus providing over 700,000 square feet of leasable space.

Two Rivers Mall is owned by Two Rivers Lifestyle Company Ltd which is a coalition of several firms including, Centum Group, the majority shareholder; Aviation Industry Corporation of China (Avic) and ICDC a state-owned firm.

The mall consists of medium density residential homes, office blocks, a shopping center, as well as a vast range of restaurants one of which is the City Lodge’s three-star 170 key hotel. Some other renowned tenants include Carrefour, the French retailer, which operates more than 12,000 outlets globally, and is the mall’s anchor tenant; the Turkish luxury fashion line LC Waikiki, Woolworths, Hugo Boss and Nike.

Right from the start of construction and overall development of the mall, the owners knew that they wanted the project to be compliant with international green standards. With this in mind, CESP Africa was subcontracted by Athena Properties Ltd –the property managers- to provide a wholesome and eco-friendly Wastewater Treatment solution.

CESP proposed a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) Aerobic Wastewater Treatment System. These terms may seem complex and daunting, however what the system basically does is treat the collected waste water using bacteria, whose purpose is to feed on this waste. These bacteria are provided with oxygen in order for survival as well as to operate at optimal levels, thus the system is referred to as an aerobic wastewater treatment system. The MBBR technology employs polyethylene biofilm carriers which provide a protected and increased surface area to support the growth of these bacteria. It is this high-density population of bacteria that achieves high-rate biodegradation within the system, while also offering process reliability and ease of operation. At the end of this whole treatment process Two Rivers mall was to obtain colorless, odorless and environmentally-friendly effluent.

This was to be a one-of-a-kind system for CESP Africa as it would be one of the largest Wastewater Treatment Projects installed in Africa. CESP took up the challenge and with their long-time business partners JET Inc. embarked on the installation of what was to be a gargantuan system. Jet Inc. is an American firm and is the respected world leader in wastewater treatment technology. Since 1955, the firm has provided products that have been developed with the industry’s longest service life and lowest repair rates and CESP Africa is the authorized distributor of the Jet Inc. products in Sub-Saharan Africa.

CESP conducted multiple site visits, attended a good number of meetings with the different shareholders and fellow sub-contractors as well as designed and redesigned the layout and structure of the system together with the dedicated engineers at JET Inc. with painstaking attention to detail so as to ensure that not a single item was left out.

Installation of the 1,135 m3 / 300,000 GPD (Gallons per Day) or 1,135,624 liters per day Wastewater Treatment System then began with the CESP workmen and engineers working tirelessly to ensure the timely completion of the project. Besides, the wastewater treatment system, CESP also installed a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. This SCADA system allows for remote monitoring, data logging as well as diagnosis of the installed wastewater treatment system hence providing CESP a timely, safer and overall, more efficient project maintenance procedure.

The mall has since been opened with a ribbon cutting ceremony that was held on the 14th of February 2017 and was graced by the Kenyan President Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta. It is approximated that 120,105 people visited the mall that day and CESP is proud to say that their Wastewater Treatment System was able to handle all the waste generated on that peak day and effectively continues to do so a couple of months down the line.

The Two Rivers Management puts this effluent (treated wastewater) to good use such as irrigating their expansive grounds as well as a reserve in the case of fire-fighting and any excess effluent is discharged into River Gichiie. All of this released effluent is in line with the requirements by the local environment regulator (NEMA) for discharge and reuse.

Through this partnership with CESP Africa, Two Rivers development is able to reuse 80% of all the water now and in the future creating a cyclic environment for the entire ecosystem. Additionally, it has created a sustainable shopping, living & working experience for all at the Two Rivers.

Read More