What you can expect in climate change in Kenya in 2023

United Nations and partners call for $472.6 million to respond in 2023 as the drought in Kenya deepens

The United Nations and partners are calling for $472.6 million in aid to help 4.3 million drought-affected people in Kenya in 2023, as the crisis is expected to worsen. The drought in Kenya is the longest and most severe in recent history, and the needs of those in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) region continue to rise. It is estimated that 6.4 million people in ASALs will need humanitarian assistance in 2023.

At least 4.35 million people are going hungry and about 5 million do not have access to clean water. There have also been reports of children dropping out of school and increases in child marriage cases. Despite being an underfunded crisis, 89 humanitarian partners reached nearly 1 million people with aid between January and September 2022. However, the exceptional duration and severity of the drought has led to projections of a possible sixth consecutive poor rainy season from March to May 2023.

UN drought appeal 2023
A man gives water to a thirsty donkey in drought-stricken Kenya.

Below-average short rains ameliorate rangeland resources, but conditions remain poor.

The historic drought in Kenya is continuing, with the October to December 2022 short rains being the fifth consecutive below-average season. Rainfall at the end of November was less than 70% of the 30-year average across most of the country, with large areas in the northwest, north, and east recording less than 55% of the average. The short rains have provided some stabilization in water and pasture conditions in northern Kenya’s pastoral areas, but vegetation greenness is still less than 60% of the 10-year average.

In western Kenya, rainfall is average to above average, supporting agricultural production. Across pastoral areas, rangeland resources are still well below normal, and poor vegetation and long trekking distances for water are maintaining poor livestock conditions and low milk production. In the marginal agricultural areas, the area planted with staple food is below average due to the late onset and below-average rainfall, as well as constrained access to income for seeds and inputs. Staple food prices remain high across the country due to successive below-average production seasons, high demand, high marketing costs, and reduced cross-border imports. This is limiting household purchasing power, particularly for poor market-dependent households.

Kenya forecast for 2023
Map of Kenya showing expected food insecurity conditions in 2023.

Tree Planting Initiative to Benefit Local Community in 2023

On November 9th, 2022, Laikipia Air Base (LAB) in Nanyuki, Kenya, partnered with Kenya Water Towers to launch a tree planting initiative with the goal of planting over 30,000 trees within the region. This initiative is not only part of the Kenya Defence Forces’ environmental soldier program, but it is also expected to benefit the local community in 2023 by improving air quality and providing a source of shade and possibly even fruit.

The tree planting is also in support of the country’s plan to plant 5 billion new trees as part of its climate change mitigation efforts. The Base Commander, Brigadier Mohamud Farah, thanked Kenya Water Towers for their donation of 15,230 tree seedlings and participation in the program. The event was attended by LAB Commanding Officers, officers, base sergeant major, service members, and representatives from Kenya Water Towers.

Kdf tree planting Laikipia
Soldiers planting trees at Laikipia Air Base in Nanyuki, Kenya.

Understanding the Effects of the Drought in Kenya on the Economy and Financial Situation in 2023

In 2021, Kenya’s economy grew by 6.7% after a contraction of 0.3% in 2020. Growth was driven by the service industry and private consumption, which both benefited from supportive policies and eased COVID-19 restrictions. Inflation increased to 6.1% in 2021 from 5.3% in 2020 due to higher input costs. The fiscal deficit decreased to 7.9% of GDP in 2021 from 8% in 2020 due to improved revenue, reversed tax cuts, and reduced spending. Public debt rose to 68% of GDP at the end of June 2021 from 63% in 2020 due to the primary deficit. Kenya is at high risk of debt distress.

The current account deficit increased to 5.2% of GDP in 2021 because of a larger trade deficit. International reserves reached $8.8 billion at the end of November 2021 compared to $8.1 billion in 2020 (5.4 months of import coverage), due in part to a $737.6 million allocation from the Special Drawing Rights. The exchange rate depreciated by 3.7% year-on-year in 2021. The banking sector is profitable, liquid, and well-capitalized. Yields on government securities and the NSE-20 index, as well as market capitalization, have increased. The number of people living in extreme poverty decreased to 16% in 2021 from 17% in 2020, and unemployment fell to 12.3% from 14.3% over the same period. This can be attributed to growth in per capita income, social safety net programs, and economic recovery.

Growth is expected to slow to 5.9% in 2022 and 5.7% in 2023 due to reduced domestic and external demand caused by lower income and higher costs for food and fuel imports, as well as weak economic activity across sectors due to cost-push factors. Inflation is expected to reach 7%, close to the upper end of the target range (7.5%), because of higher energy and food inflation. The fiscal deficit is expected to narrow to 6.5% of GDP in 2022 and 5.5% in 2023 with the resumption of an International Monetary Fund-supported fiscal consolidation and debt management program. The current account deficit is expected to widen further to 6.1% and 5.2% of GDP over the next two years due to higher bills for fuel and food imports. Risks to this outlook.

Climate Change: A Threat to Kenya’s Prosperity in 2023

In conclusion, climate change is expected to have a negative impact on Kenya’s economy in 2023. Growth is predicted to slow and inflation is expected to increase, while the fiscal and current account deficits are expected to worsen. These economic challenges will likely affect the livelihoods and well-being of the people of Kenya. It is important for the country to continue implementing policies and measures to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change in order to protect its citizens and economy.

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The state of climate change in Kenya

To all the farmers in Tharaka Nithi

The Agricultural Sector Development Support Programme (ASDSP) has warned Tharaka Nithi farmers in Kenya to conserve water and plant early maturing crops ahead of a dry spell expected in December. The programme has warned that the current short rains will become minimal towards the end of the month. Obadiah Munene, ASDSP Value Chain Development Officer, said: “The meteorological department predicted that the rain would be intense in November and reduce towards the end of December and hence our advice to farmers to plant early maturing crops”. He also urged farmers to consider modern methods of weed control to avoid labor shortages.

In Kwale county

The County Government of Kwale has provided 3,500 vulnerable households with relief food as drought continues to ravage coastal Kenya. Governor Fatuma Achani said 200,000 people are in need of food and water. Achani is chair of the County Drought Response Coordination Committee and has ordered that the food be fairly distributed. She called on humanitarian agencies and well-wishers to provide further aid. Achani also revealed that her administration was investing in the construction of mega dams to harvest rainwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. She also called on the Kenya Wildlife Service to address the increased human-wildlife conflict caused by the drought.

The president in Kakamega county.

Kenyan President William Ruto has promised to build dams and complete road projects in the country’s Kakamega region. The president, who visited the region last week, also committed to funding the development of the Kakamega Teaching and Referral Hospital, as well as investing in the sugar mill, gold refinery and granite factory. Ruto also pledged to launch an affordable housing programme, providing 20,000 homes for residents. He also vowed to waive landing fees at the Kakamega airstrip, and to provide jobs for former local leaders.

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The future of sustainable affordable housing in Kenya.

On 11th October 2022 President Ruto inspected the Kings Serenity Affordable Housing Programme project in Ongata Rongai. The Kings Serenity housing project is part of the Boma Yangu initiative whose main agenda is to provide affordable housing to Kenyans. The project aims to provide 15,000 affordable housing units.

The Kings Serenity project is part of former President Uhuru Kenyatta’s affordable housing programme under the Big Four agenda.

As well as the project in Ongata Rongai the programme also aims to build housing units in Mukuru kwa Reuben as well as other areas in the country.


With so many housing units being constructed there will be a huge strain on the existing infrastructure, including wastewater sewage management and water provision. CESP Africa has provided a wastewater management system to aid that strain.

We are in the process of installing a complete wastewater treatment plant that will be complete and operational before 2023, before residents move into the housing units. The treatment plant will not only treat the wastewater produced in the project but will also recycle water that can be used for watering plants and cleaning the environs.

The system is an important part of keeping the overall housing project affordable as it reduces the need for provision of water by other water providers.

The future.

As the Kings Serenity project comes to a close, we hope to be future partners in the provision of affordable housing in Kenya. Not only recycling wastewater but also providing treated water for future housing projects.

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The construction industry needs to go green.

What is a green building?

A green building is a building which is energy efficient, resource efficient and environmentally responsible – it incorporates design, construction and operational practices that significantly reduce or eliminate its negative impact on the environment and its occupants.

The construction industry and climate change.

Buildings are one of the main contributors to climate change. International reports state that buildings represent the single largest opportunity for greenhouse gas abatement, outstripping the energy, transport and industry sectors combined.

The UNEP reports that globally, the built environment is responsible for:

  • 12% fresh water consumption.
  • 40% end-use energy consumption
  • 40 % solid waste generation
UNEP HQ Nairobi

What do we need to change?

The overall concept of green buildings is a response to the environmental impact of the construction industry and buildings in general.

Buildings consume the most energy during occupancy, in form of heating and air conditioning, electricity and water consumption.

Green buildings include strategies for addressing:

  • Water conservation
  • Waste avoidance, re-use and recycling
  • Pollution prevention – noise, water, air, soil and light
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Greenhouse gas emission abatement
  • Enhanced biodiversity
  • Reduced natural resource consumption
  • Productive and healthier environments.

A new way to think of water

With the effects of climate change becoming ever more evident, water is becoming an even more valuable resource. To keep up with targets on carbon emissions and environmental conservation the construction industry will have to change the way they think of water.

Water is not a limitless resource. The world’s surface might be covered by over 70% water but only 2% of that is fresh potable water. And even worse is that of that 2%, 1.6% is frozen in glaciers and icecaps.

Major changes have been made to existing infrastructure to make them more water and energy efficient, as well as introducing new technologies to achieve the same. But a lot more needs to be done to meet the growing demand for fresh water.

We will be going through actionable ways to get your building green and save on your water usage.

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Complete reverse osmosis filtration system

Commercial Reverse osmosis water filtration system Case study.

Client needs

The client has an apartment complex located in Westlands area. They receive water from Nairobi water, but most of their water is from a borehole.

Their water contained raised amounts of fluoride and suspended solids, as well as discoloration.

System details

The system has a production capacity of 4000Liters per hour.

The system includes: a sand, carbon filter and cartridge filters.

The raw water is pumped through the filters using a feed pump.

The system has an antiscalant dosing tank to protect the reverse osmosis membrane from scaling.

The system has 2 high pressure vessels containing the reverse osmosis membranes.

The system is controlled using a control panel, which also displays details on the system’s production.

Timeline of installation

Installation of the reverse osmosis system took 4 days.  

Before actual installation period, water from the apartment is taken for analysis. Results from the analysis informed the treatment of the raw water.

Some pipes were laid and the raw water tank was delivered before the other components were delivered. Power cables were also laid to provide the system with electricity.

Plumbing work.

During the four-day period the sand and carbon filters were filled and backwashed to remove any impurities that may have been present in the media.

Plumbing was fitted to connect the components of the whole system.

Filtration process.

Raw water passes through the following stages before the final product is produced:

a) Pre-filtration.

b) Antiscalant dosing.

c) Secondary filtration.

d) Reverse osmosis.

 e) Chlorination.

The water being treated by this reverse osmosis plant is mainly borehole water. The raw water comes directly from the borehole into a 5000L portable tank that is within the RO room. There is a high-level float switch within the raw water tank that serves to facilitate automatic operation of the borehole pump such that the water does not overflow from the tank upon filling up.


Before raw water passes through the reverse osmosis machine, it passes through an assembly of filters comprising a sand filter, carbon filter and cartridge filters. The work of the sand filter is to remove suspended solid particles from the raw water. The carbon filter on the other hand removes smell and taste. Both vessels (sand filter vessel and carbon filter vessel) have got automatic control valves. The cartridge filters assembly is meant to remove any finer suspended solid particles present in the raw water which were not removed by the sand filter.

Sand and carbon filter
Sand and carbon filter

Antiscaling dosing

There is an antiscalant dosing point after the sand filter and carbon filter and before the raw water gets to the cartridge filter and the RO membranes. Antiscalant dosing is very important as it delays the reaction between Mg, Ca and bicarbonate hence reducing scaling and clogging of the membranes. The antiscalant dosing tank has got a float switch (liquid level control switch) whose function is to ensure that the reverse osmosis machine operates only when there is antiscalant present in the antiscalant tank, otherwise the feed pump and the high-pressure pump will be disengaged. Hence, the RO machine cannot run on inadequate antiscalant as that would be catastrophic to the membranes. The float switch also ensures that the antiscalant dosing pump does not run dry.

Reverse osmosis.

The RO skid has got two pressure vessels and each pressure vessel carries two membranes. Therefore, in total we have four membranes. Purification of water happens by reverse osmosis whereby the permeate is pushed through the semi-permeable membranes and separated from the concentrate after the water has been subjected to a hydrostatic pressure that is greater than the osmotic pressure. The hydrostatic pressure is provided by the high-pressure pump.

Complete reverse osmosis system

The most important parameters on the reverse osmosis skids are the RO inlet pressure, RO outlet pressure and the permeate flowrate. These are indicated on gauges and flowmeters provided on the skid. Permeate flowrate (in cubic meters per hour or simply CMH) dictates the yield or production of the plant.

The concentrate is the unwanted residue and it passes through a separate pipeline to the drainage system of the facility. The permeate on the other hand goes into an underground reservoir via a one-inch pipe. The permeate is the purified water or the wanted product. Within the underground storage tank, there is a high-level float switch whose function is to automatically switch off the RO machine upon filling up of the tank.


It is on the permeate line that we have a chlorination point. This is where chlorine is dosed by a chlorine dosing pump into the permeate/pure water before it pours into the underground storage tank. The chlorine dosing tank has got a low-level float-switch which is meant to cut off power supply to the chlorine dosing pump to prevent it from running dry.


After we installed the system we trained the care taker on how to monitor and take care of the system. We also provided a one year warranty on the system.

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Circular economy

A circular economy, what we should have been doing all along.


What is a NAMA?

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are voluntary, non-binding policy instruments that provide a framework for pursuing a country’s socioeconomic and development goals, while contributing towards global greenhouse gas mitigation efforts.

Following the success of the 2015 Paris agreement on climate change, many countries including Kenya introduced their own NAMA focused on waste management. NAMAs were first introduced in 2007 at the 13th Conference of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP13) in Bali.


Nairobi produces around 2,400 tons of waste every day, of which only 38 per cent is collected and less than 10 per cent recycled (JICA, 2010). The remaining 62 per cent is left on illegal dumpsites and next to houses or burned.

Instead of waste being collected for disposal only, the NAMA facilitates the diversion of at least 90 per cent of collected waste away from disposal sites and towards various recycling practices.

The NAMA is fully aligned with the policy goals of the Kenyan government (Kenya Vision 2030, National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP), Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA)), which promote the provision of sanitation services and recycling.

Under the NAMA, up to 600 tons of waste will be recycled every day, (which accounts for 25 per cent of Nairobi’s total waste). This will save more than 800,000 tons in CO2e emissions (over the 15 years’ lifetime of the NAMA).

The NAMA is divided into two distinct phases:

■ Infrastructure development phase (Phase 1 – years 1 to 5): Phase 1 will develop the infrastructure required to collect and recycle 600 tons of waste per day.

■ Full-scale operations phase (Phase 2 – years 6 to 15): This phase builds on the experience gained during Phase 1 and will scale the operations of the NAMA to 600 tons of waste per day.

The NAMA therefore aims to achieve 10 key success factors

■ Sector Transformation: Spur development of an environment which facilitates transformation of the waste sector in urban areas of Kenya.

■ Alignment with national priorities: Be fully embedded in Kenya’s national and sectoral development policies, strategies and targets.

■ Define Interventions: Detail concrete technological actions that will lead to real, transparent and measurable emission reductions and help the country to achieve its national goals and targets while contributing to collective efforts on international climate actions.

■ Define Eligibility Criteria: Clearly define the eligibility criteria for private sector participation and funding.

■ Value for Money: Be cost effective and provide value for money.

■ Approval Structure: Define a structure for approval of funding to beneficiaries of grant and concessional loans to ensure transparent disbursement of funds.

■ Management Entity: Detail an institutional and management system for smooth implementation.

■ Capacity Development: Define capacity development measures to drive the technical interventions and sector transformation

■ Finance: Include a financial plan and management in sufficient detail.

■ Measurement Reporting and Verification (MRV): Apply transparent and robust MRV for GHG Emission Reductions and Sustainable Development Impacts.

The increase in Kenya’s urban population has reduced the capability of the county governments to manage the solid waste generated, with less than 40 per cent being collected and disposed of at designated open dumpsites. Much of the waste is poorly managed: waste is not collected, disposal sites are inadequate, or waste is contaminated with hazardous materials.

Such impacts range from clogged drainage and sewers, waterborne diseases like typhoid, cholera and diarrhea, increased upper respiratory diseases from open burning of the garbage, to malaria. This is especially concerning in slums and other lower income areas, where high population density, paired with lack of infrastructure and service provision, only aggravates these problems. More than half of Nairobi’s 3.5 million inhabitants live in low-income areas or slums.

Dandora dumpsite

Around one third of Nairobi’s waste is transported to the only dumpsite, Dandora.

“Dandora is a health and environmental disaster. At 43 hectares, equivalent to 60 football pitches, it has grown much too vast to be managed and the waste has been contaminating the groundwater for years. This affects half a million residents living around the dumpsite. A 2007 study by UNEP that examined 328 children living close to the dumpsite uncovered that half-had blood lead levels equal to or exceeding the poisoning threshold of 10 micrograms per deciliter of blood. Exposure to such high levels of lead is linked with damage to the nervous system and the brain. “

Grand Health Challenges Blog.

Current private sector waste management models do not offer a solution to this problem either. This is because (1) waste collection companies only collect waste for the purposes of disposal; and (2) their services are too expensive for the majority of Nairobi’s population.

It is estimated that the current demand for compost is in excess of 100,000 tons/year and growing (Lachlan Kenya Ltd., December 2011. Production of compost in Kenya currently stands at less than 10,000 tons/year. Meanwhile, Kenya imports around 1,500,000 tons/year of chemical fertilizer.

The introduction of the circular economy approach will:

■ make waste management affordable to almost all income earners, as the overwhelming majority (at

least 90 per cent) of the collected waste will be recycled;

■ significantly reduce disposal costs (less than 10 per cent of waste will be residual waste);

■ generate additional revenues from the sale of recyclable materials;

■ generate additional revenues from the sale of compost; and

■ generate additional revenues from the payment of tipping fees (for NEEs owning and managing

recycling points).

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commercial water treatment system

Commercial ultrafiltration water purification system case study.

CESP Africa provided a 25m3/h containerized ultrafiltration system to Thika sewage &water Co. LTD to provide clean water for the population around Kantafu Ngoliba market in Kiambu county. Our containerized system is contained in a 40ft shipping container meaning it is portable.

The water to be filtered is sourced from Chania river in the area. Pump stations from the river pump water to Kantafu market where the filtration system is located.

At the plant there is a pioneer tank installed by CESP Africa to store the raw water before it is treated.

Pioneer water tank and containerised ultrafiltration system
Pioneer water tank to store raw water and the containerized ultrafiltration system.

The ultrafiltration system.

The water is received in the container with the ultrafiltration system. The water is pumped into a sand filter to get rid of suspended material in the water.


The sand filter vessel contains different grades of media to remove the suspended solids in t he influent.

Multi-media filter and bag filter vessels.

The water passes through a bag filter with seven different filters to further purify the water.

Another pump pushes the water to the ultrafiltration membrane. The water is then stored in a clean water tank before it is used.

Control box for the system and housing for the ultrafiltration membranes.
Control box for the system and housing for the ultrafiltration membranes.

[embedyt] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxT37DjjBds[/embedyt]

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Earth day 2022

Earth day 2022. What we need to do.

This year marks the 52nd world earth day. Since its inception the day has been an opportunity to highlight areas where we as humans have taken advantage of our home, planet earth. Climate change is one of the largest issues facing humanity. While we have an opportunity to correct the past, the time for action is now.

Invest in the planet

This year the theme of the day is ‘Invest in our planet’. It is our opportunity to invest time, money, effort, innovation and passion to save our planet from climate change and its effects. All parties need to be involved in this effort. From governments, organizations to individuals.

Let’s do something about it.

Across the planet there are organized events happening on Earth day to ‘Invest in the planet’. In Nairobi there are numerous events happening, like;

  • Nairobi River Fall See Waterfalls Restoration Intervention – The target is to establish Green Tourism Destination by developing Nature Paths along the river, construct Gabions along the river banks, botanical garden at the waterfalls, engage organized groups working along the river to undertake Bamboo Growing Challenge – 120 Green Champions from 6 Villages in Lucky Summer Ward, Ruaraka Sub County, Nairobi County Kenya to produce 12,000 Bamboo Seedlings to be planted by 5th June 2022. The initiative is Led by Lucky Summer Environmental & Waste Management Organization with technical guidance from National & County Government, GKIT, KFS, NMS, Business Community, CSOs, CBOs, working in Environment Sector.
  • Mathare 4A ground Community Clean-up.
  • Refueling Africa : Ethical Investment in the energy sector in Africa with a key focus on EACOP and other spiraling fossil fuels investments – In this webinar, we will hear from community leaders fighting fossil fuels intrusion from different parts of Africa including Kenya, Okavango Delta, Uganda, Tanzania and Mozambique.

Among other events. To learn more about these events as well as ways to ‘invest in our planet’ in future visit the Earthday website as well as our own website.

Looking into the future.

The good news about the future is that there is still time to correct the current state of the planet. We need to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century to keep the global temperature below 1,5°C. Though achievable, it will not be an easy task.

What can I do right now?

Bold, fast, and wide-ranging action needs to be taken by governments and businesses. But the transition to a low-carbon world also requires the participation of citizens.

  • The manufacturing industry is the biggest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, and needs to play an pivotal role if real change is to be made.
  • The transport and energy industry are big players in the climate change.
  • The farming industry and food production will have to change.
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Major water projects across Kenya to ease forecasted water shortages.

Taita Taveta

The county government is in the process of building a major water project to service the area. The water shortage in the county has been grave to a notoriety level and that has got the attention of the national government, which for the last four years has vowed to increase water access and sanitation services in every corner of the country.

The project has been divided into three phases. The first already completed in August 2021. True to its promises, the national government in collaboration with local, national, and global partners has aggressively embarked on the implementation of water projects in the most drought-hit and water shortage hotspots in Taita Taveta.

The three-phase project is set to cost a whopping USD $414 400 (approximately Sh47 million) already secured from National Treasury and aims to support a 1, 000-hectare irrigation project as well as supply domestic water to 7,000 people and 15,000 livestock.

“The project is looking to harness Lake Challa water resource for both domestic and irrigation use for the areas of Mwatate, Voi, and Taveta,” said Dr. Keinan.

Nation wide

On Friday last week, yet another water project funded by the European Union through the national government’s Water Sector Trust Fund was commissioned at Maktau.

The Sh88 million Nyangoro-Maktau Water and Sanitation Development Project will serve a population of 17,000 residents from Maktau and Godoma locations, who had to walk long distances in search of water for domestic use.

Other small-scale water projects have also been launched by the national government in partnership with the county government and continued to shift the landscape of water access and sanitation.

Kenya’s water sources are unevenly distributed and at times plagued with community conflicts that further increase water access distress, especially among arid and semi-arid regions.

To quell conflicts, the national government is using the strategy of public participation in the spirit of developing water projects anchored on prudent sharing for the benefit of all, which are now bearing fruits in Taita Taveta and other water-distress regions.

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COVID waste protocols NEMA

The Issue of COVID related Waste.

In March of 2020 the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Kenya. Along with being a global pandemic it also brought the issue of bio-hazardous waste associated with protective gear. National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) put in place guidelines to guide the handling and disposal of these hazardous material, but in a recent report NEMA says this waste is being improperly managed.

The guidelines were put in place in accordance with the Environmental Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations of 2006, which has provisions for handling and disposing of Biomedical waste. The guidelines are to protect those handling the waste as well as the general public from COVID infection.

Hospitals and other medical facilities are more prepared to handle such waste, it is the general public that is the main culprit in mishandling biomedical waste.

 People were mandated to wear face masks in public, which introduced a whole new source of biomedical waste. According to UN Environment Programme UNEP, 75% of all waste in any category ends up in landfills or floated into oceans. The introduction of masks is a global environmental disaster then. That is where NEMA’s regulations would come to play.

What are these regulations?

Generally, all the regulations pertain to 2 objectives.

  • Segregation of biomedical waste.
  • Disposal of biomedical waste.
Officials, garbage are helping each other to transport garbage bags to the store.

Their application is in the form of;

a) In gated community, apartments, residential areas, factories, institutions, office blocks, the management or the owner of such facilities will provide medical waste pedal bins that will have biohazard bin liners. The management/owners will engage a licensed hazardous waste handler to collect and transport the infectious waste for a final disposal in accordance Environmental Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations of 2006. Hence forth referred to as – EMC (Waste Management) Regulations of 2006.

b) In the rural and small urban centers at the ward level, the County Governments shall provide the same waste bins as in (a) above that will be placed either at the Chiefs Camps, ward offices, or health clinics and any other appropriate designated places that will be communicated to the public. Collection of such hazardous waste from such designated places shall be done through a licensed infectious waste handler.

c) In the public places including markets, bus/ matatu terminals, the county government shall provide to the general public Covid-19 related medical waste pedal receptacles that will have biohazard bin liners installed strategically in the public places and well secured and labelled infectious waste. Each of the county government shall engage a NEMA Licensed infectious /biomedical waste handler as required by EMC (Waste Management) Regulations of 2006.

d) If no special garbage bins are available, residents could spray disinfectant on both sides of their used masks with recommended disinfectants and fold them up before putting them into a sealed bin liner in the dustbin.


• Handle carefully all biomedical waste to avoid spillage of the same on the road/Highways during transportation.

• Ensure regular sanitization of workers involved in handling and collection of biomedical waste.

• Workers shall be provided with adequate PPEs, including three (3) layer masks, splash proof aprons, gowns, nitrite gloves, gumboots and safety googles.

• Use a dedicated vehicle to collect COVID-19 ward waste.

• Vehicle should be sanitized with sodium hypochlorite or any appropriate chemical disinfectant after every trip.

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